About batteries: historical context

With the development of the secondary battery the need arose for a better power source than a primary battery. This development had already been started by Michael Faraday with his discovery of magnetic induction.

In 1866, Werner von Siemens and Charles Wheatstone presente simultaneously a practical design for a Dynamo.

Zénobe Gramme invented in 1871 the Gramme Dynamo, which was the first to generate electricity on a commercial scale. Gramme discovered by chance that when two Gramme-dynamo's were connetcted in parrallel, one dynamo acted as an engine, electrically powered by the other. The Gramme machine successfully developed into the first, industrial electric motor.

And so it all came together. The Dynamo could generate electricity, the secondary battery could store it and the electric motor could convert electrical energy into mechanical drive. The development and manufacture of secondary batteries went into overdrive. In 1890 for example - due to the unreliability of the combustion engine - nine out of ten cars were electrically powered..